Please be aware that context is everything. Depending on your topic, there may not be really strong scholarly research, or there might be an abundance of it. We do the best we can with the best information we can find, and keep asking questions to make the research better.
You can apply many of these questions to other types of sources too, like newspaper articles, social media posts, videos, etc.!
Even with thorough publication processes like peer review, humans will make errors. If anything seems suspicious as you're reading a scholarly article, check in with your instructor, a librarian, or even a website like Retraction Watch (linked below). They post retracted (or "recalled") articles that journals should not have been published in the first place, for various reasons.